Leaders in Infant Nutrition (1866 - 1966)
Abraham Jacobi (1830-1919)
Born in Hartum, Westphalia; medical training in Bonn, Germany. Emigrated to New York City in 1853; established a children's clinic at the New York Medical College and, later, at the College of Physicians and Surgeons; one of the founders of the American Pediatrics Society and served as its first president; strong advocate of breast-feeding; detractor of various artificial foods; published popular books on infant diet in the 1870's and 1880's.
Book: The Intestinal Diseases of Infancy and Childhood.Detroit: George S. Davis, 1887.
Otto Heubner (1843 - 1926)
Born Johann Otto Leonhardt Heubner in Germany; medical training at Leipzig; in 1873 became professor of internal medicine at Leipzig and, later, professor of pediatrics there; professor and director of the Pediatric Clinic and Polyclinic in Berlin (1894); with Rubner, published the first calorimetric studies of the energy needs of infants.
Max Rubner (1854-1932)
Born in Munich; studied there with Voit; constructed the first accurate respiration calorimeter at Marburg (1889); professor of hygiene (1891) and professor of physiology (1909) at Berlin; developed concepts of proportionality of body surface areas to energy requirements; collaborated with Heubner to measure energy needs of infants.
Joint Article: "Die kunstliche ernahrung eines normalen und eines atrophischen Sauglings," Zeitschrift fur Biologie. 1899, v.38, pp. 315-398.
Thomas Morgan Rotch (1849 - 1914)
Born in Philadelphia; medical training at Harvard (1874) and, later, held the chair in pediatrics there; established the Boston's Children's Hospital; popularized the percentage method of infant feeding; strong advocate of sanitary and modified cow's milk in artificial feeding and established a milk laboratory to provide such; published a major textbook that went through five editions (1895-1906).
Article: The essential principles of infant feeding and the modern methods of applying them (Part 1) and The essential principles of infant feeding and the modern methods of applying them (Part 2).J.A.M.A. 41:349-354; 416-421.
Article: "An historical sketch of the development of percentage feeding," New York Medical Journal, March 23, 1907, v. 85, pp. 532-537.
Luther Emmett Holt, SR. (1855-1924)
Born in Webster, New York; medical training at Rochester, graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1880 and appointed professor of diseases of children there in 1902; served as director of the Babies Hospital (1889-1923); published a popular book, Care and Feeding of Children, and an influential textbook, The Diseases of Infancy and Childhood.
Book: The Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. New York: Appleton, 1911.
John Ruhrah (1872 - 1935)
Born in Chillicothe, Ohio; studied at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Baltimore and Johns Hopkins; named professor of pediatrics in Baltimore; published the first papers on the use of soy bean in infant feeding.
Article: The soy bean as an article of diet for infants. J.A.M.A. 54:1664-1665.
Article: "Further observations on the soy bean,"Transactions of the American Pediatric Society. 1911, v.23, pp. 386-388.
John Howland (1873 - 1926)
Born in New York City; graduated from the University Medical College where he assisted Holt; professorships in pediatrics at Washington University (1911) and Johns Hopkins (1912); calorimetric studies and studies of nutrient requirements of children; credited by E.V. McCollum with stimulating interest in animal models for the study of rickets that led to discovery of vitamin D.
Article: "The metabolism, directly determined, of healthy children during sleep," Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1910 , v. 8, pp. 63-64.
Alfred Fabian Hess (1875 - 1933)
Born in New York City; medical training at the College of Physicians and Surgeons (1901); conducted many studies at the Hebrew Infant Asylum; contributed important studies and monographs on scurvy and rickets in infants and children; showed that irradiation of certain feeds produced vitamin D active compounds in them.
Book: Scurvy---Past and Present. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1920.
Book: Rickets Including Osteomalacia and Tetany. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1929.
Harriette Chick (1875 - 1977)
Born in London; received D. Sc. from University College (1904); worked at Lister Institute where she began study of vitamins; sent to Vienna after WW I to lead a team investigating rickets in children; demonstrated that both cod liver oil and sunlight protected against, or cured, the disease; made a Dame of the British Empire in 1944.
Article: "Study of rickets in Vienna 1919-1922." Medical History. 1976, v.20, pp. 41-51.
Edwards A. Park (1877 - 1969)
Born in Gloversville, N.Y.; received M.D. from the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons (1905); invited by Howland to Johns Hopkins; major expertise in bone growth; collaborated with E.V. McCollum and Nina Simmonds on studies of rickets in rats that were instrumental in the identification of vitamin D.
Article (with P.G. Shipley, E.V, Mccollum, and Nina Simmons): "The relative effectiveness of cod liver oil as contrasted butter fat for protecting the body against insufficient calcium in the presence of normal phosphorous supply." The American Journal of Hygiene. 1921, v.1, pp. 512-525.
Philip Charles Jeans (1883 - 1952)
Born In Hillsboro, Ohio; studied chemistry at the University of Kansas and medicine at Johns Hopkins (1909); joined the Dept. of Pediatrics of Washington University (1913) then went as head of pediatrics to the University of Iowa where he studied the vitamin D requirements of infants; as a member of the Council on Foods of the American Medical Association, Jeans authored their recommendations of the fortification of foods with vitamin D.
Book: Essentials of Pediatrics. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1946.
William McKim Marriott (1885 - 1936)
Born in Baltimore; medical training at Cornell University; professor of pediatrics at Washington University (1917) and Dean of the Medical School (1923-1936); showed that symptoms of diarrhea in infants were due to dehydration and accompanying acidosis and not to an intoxication as previously thought; recommended feeding evaporated milk, to which was added corn syrup, as an economical food for infants.
Book: Infant Nutrition. St. Louis. C.V. Mosby, 1930.
Article: Marriott, Wm. McK. and Schoenthal, L. "An experimental study of the use of unsweetened evaporated milk for the preparation of infant feeding formulas." Archives of Pediatrics. 1929, v. 46, pp. 135-148.
Icie Macy Hoobler (1892 - 1984)
Born in Gallatin, Missouri; undergraduate education in chemistry at the University of Chicago and Ph.D. from Yale (1920), studyied with Mendel; began studies of the nutrition of children in 1923 at the Merrill-Palmer School in Detroit and later for the Children's Fund of Michigan; contributed studies of the effect of mother's nutrition on the composition of her milk and the effects of nutrition on the growth of children.
Article: The Composition of Milks. National Research council Publ. 254 (co-authored with H.J. Kelley and R.E. Sloan) Washington, DC: National Research Council--National Academy of Sciences, 1953.
Paul Gyorgy (1893 - 1976)
Born in Nagyvarod, Hungary; medical training in Budapest (1915); served on the faculty at Heidelberg (1920-1933) before going to Cambridge University in the U.K. and then to Western Reserve University (1935-1944) and the University of Pennsylvania (1944-1959); major contributions to knowledge of infant requirements for vitamins and the composition of human milk.
Article: "A hitherto unrecognized difference between human milk and cow's milk." Pediatrics. 1953, v.11, pp. 98-108.
L. Emmett Holt, Jr. (1895 - 1974)
Born in New York City; medical training at Johns Hopkins (1920) and continued to work there for many years; became professor and chair of pediatrics at New York University in 1944; worked on aspects of infant nutrition throughout his career; best known for work on amino acid requirements and on the B vitamins; continued his father's popular book on child care and feeding.
Book: Holt, L.E. Jr. and McIntosh, R. The Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. New York: Appleton-Century Co. 1936.
Samuel J. Fomon (1923 - )
Born in Chicago, Il; A.B. Harvard (1945); medical training at University of Pennsylvania (1947); Philadelphia Children's Hospital (1948-50) and Cincinnati Children's Hospital (1950-52); Professor of Pediatrics at University of Iowa (1954-93); Director of Program in Human Nutrition (1980-88); major expertise in infant nutrition, especially factors influencing food intake and growth
Article:"Body composition of the male reference infant during the first year of life," Pediatrics. 1967, v.40, pp. 963-870.
Helen A. Guthrie (1925 - )
Born in Sarnia, Ontario; educated at the University of Western Ontario (1946); Michigan State University (1948) and Doctorate from University of Hawaii (1968); Professor of Nutrition at Pennsylvania State University (1949-92); Head of Department (1979-1989); expertise in infant nutrition and nutritional evaluation; brain development.
Article: "Effect of early feeding of solid foods on nutritive intake of infants." Pediatrics. 1966, v.38, pp.879-885.