A normal life
New technologies help patients avoid the “highs” and “lows” of diabetes
“I’d just feel really sleepy and hungry,” says the active Nashville seventh grader, who’d had type 1 diabetes since she was 3. “I wouldn’t remember anything that happened before I got low. I just felt really bad.”
Fortunately, at that time, insulin pumps were beginning to be prescribed to children, and Katie was fitted with one in the summer of 2001. Since then, “we’ve only had five or six of the kind of spells we’d been having twice a week,” says her mother, Dr. Meg Rush, assistant professor of Pediatrics at Vanderbilt.
Insulin pumps are among the recent technological and pharmaceutical marvels that are improving the lives of people with type 1 diabetes.
The battery-powered device, which is a little larger than a pager, contains a cartridge of rapid-acting insulin that is pumped through a plastic tube and into a needle inserted under the skin. With the help of a miniature computer, the pump can deliver precise amounts of insulin throughout the day, even when the patient is asleep.
Rapid-acting forms of insulin help improve blood glucose control because they more closely mimic the body’s normal insulin response after eating a meal. There are also long-acting forms of the hormone, designed for people who can control their blood glucose with once-a-day injections.
Patients still must test their blood glucose frequently, but they can program their pump to deliver an additional dose of insulin before snacks and mealtimes to help avoid the “highs” and “lows” of blood glucose that can occur with traditional insulin therapy.
“You have to be aware of how you feel,” Katie Rush says. “You have to monitor it closely.”
Of all the complications of diabetes treatment, hypoglycemia is perhaps the most frightening. “Often (patients) will prefer to have their blood glucose values running a little bit high in order to prevent hypoglycemia,” says Dr. Steven N. Davis, chief of the Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism at Vanderbilt.