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Streptozotocin > Background Section

To induce type I diabetes, we can use the ß cell toxin, streptozotocin (STZ).  In order to mitigate non-specific cytotoxicity,  we will use the AMDCC protocol of multiple low-dose STZ injections, which induces diabetes mellitus by inducing repetitive low-grade ß-cell damage without significant extrapancreatic toxicity (2). We have found that STZ-induced diabetes in DBA mice leads to progressive diabetic nephropathy.In addition,  type I diabetes can be induced in eNOS-/- mice by streptozotocin, which induces an accelerated and more severe diabetic nephropathy (1)

Publications for Streptozotocin (2)

Nakagawa T, Sato W, Glushakova O, Heinig M, Clarke T, Campbell-Thompson M, Yuzawa Y, Atkinson MA, Johnson RJ, Croker B. Diabetic endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice develop advanced diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol (2007) 18:539-50
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The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy remains poorly defined, and animal models that represent the human disease have been lacking. It was demonstrated recently that the severe endothelial dysfunction that accompanies a diabetic state may cause an uncoupling of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) axis, resulting in increased levels of VEGF and excessive endothelial cell proliferation. It was hypothesized further that VEGF-NO uncoupling could be a major contributory mechanism that leads to diabetic vasculopathy. For testing of this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in eNO synthase knockout mice (eNOS KO) and C57BL6 controls. Diabetic eNOS KO mice developed hypertension, albuminuria, and renal insufficiency with arteriolar hyalinosis, mesangial matrix expansion, mesangiolysis with microaneurysms, and Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules. Glomerular and peritubular capillaries were increased with endothelial proliferation and VEGF expression. Diabetic eNOS KO mice showed increased mortality at 5 mo. All of the functional and histologic changes were improved with insulin therapy. Inhibition of eNO predisposes mice to classic diabetic nephropathy. The mechanism likely is due to VEGF-NO uncoupling with excessive endothelial cell proliferation coupled with altered autoregulation consequent to the development of preglomerular arteriolar disease. Endothelial dysfunction in human diabetes is common, secondary to effects of glucose, advanced glycation end products, C-reactive protein, uric acid, and oxidants. It was postulated that endothelial dysfunction should predict nephropathy and that correction of the dysfunction may prevent these important complications.

Qi Z, Fujita H, Jin J, Davis LS, Wang Y, Fogo AB, Breyer MD. Characterization of susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes (2005) 54:2628-37
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Differential susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy has been observed in humans, but it has not been well defined in inbred strains of mice. The present studies characterized the severity of diabetic nephropathy in six inbred mouse strains including C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, MRL/MpJ, A/J, and KK/HlJ mice. Diabetes mellitus was induced using low-dose streptozotocin injection. Progression of renal injury was evaluated by serial measurements of urinary albumin excretion, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and terminal assessment of renal morphology over 25 weeks. Despite comparable levels of hyperglycemia, urinary albumin excretion and renal histopathological changes were dramatically different among strains. DBA/2J and KK/HlJ mice developed significantly more albuminuria than C57BL/6J, MRL/MpJ, and A/J mice. Severe glomerular mesangial expansion, nodular glomerulosclerosis, and arteriolar hyalinosis were observed in diabetic DBA/2J and KK/HlJ mice. Glomerular hyperfiltration was observed in all diabetic strains studied except A/J. The significant decline in GFR was not evident over the 25-week period of study, but diabetic DBA/2J mice exhibited a tendency for GFR to decline. Taken together, these results indicate that differential susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy exists in inbred mice. DBA/2J and KK/HlJ mice are more prone to diabetic nephropathy, whereas the most widely used C57BL/6J mice are relatively resistant to development of diabetic nephropathy.

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Last updated on 2013-11-06 Moderated by Raymond Harris