Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology



James E. Crowe, Jr., M.D.



Professor of Pediatrics

Professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology

Ingram Professor of Cancer Research

Director, Vanderbilt Vaccine Center



Contact Information



Office Location:
11475 MRB IV

Phone: 615-343-8064

E-mail:  james.crowe@vanderbilt.edu


Lab URL:


Campus Mail address:

Vanderbilt Vaccine Center

11475 MRB IV (0417)


Mailing address:
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Vanderbilt Vaccine Center/Dept Pediatrics

11475 MRB IV
Nashville, TN 37232-0417







Clinical Fellowship, Vanderbilt University
Research Fellowship, NIH
Residency, Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC
M.D., Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill NC
B.S., Davidson College, Davidson, NC



Research Keywords



Monoclonal antibodies, Immunology, Infectious disease, Microbiology, Viruses, B cells, Polarized epithelial cells, virus assembly and budding, influenza, dengue, HIV, RSV, MPV, rotavirus, smallpox, vaccinia virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus.



Research Description



Our laboratory studies focus on the molecular basis for the development of effective B cell responses to viruses in humans, and on the cell biology of virus infection in polarized epithelial cells. We also have active programs in biodefense research, vaccine and monoclonal antibody development, nanomedicine, and biotechnology. Our group uses a very broad array of techniques including molecular and cellular biology, state-of-the-art imaging and flow cytometry, bioinformatics, and bioengineering approaches to attack the scientific problems that are of interest to us. Our philosophy is to work on major human pathogens - we study model systems only when the direct study of the primary pathogen in humans is not feasible at a definitive level. Current studies center on influenza, dengue virus, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, rotavirus, Rift Valley Fever virus, West Nile virus, and vaccinia virus/smallpox.

A first area of emphasis is the study of the genetic origins and structural determinants of virus neutralizing antibodies. To study this area we have developed unique B cell and antibody engineering techniques including phage display combinatorial libraries, novel methods for generation of human B cell hybridomas, direct cloning of antibody variable genes from virus-specific B cells, human hybridoma methods, high throughput sequence analysis, and full-length expression of recombinant antibodies. This work has allowed us to understand better structure/function characteristics of antiviral antibodies. Several of the recombinant human antibodies that we have generated are being developed commercially.

We have a second major program in the study of the trafficking of virus proteins in polarized epithelial cells. We have recently discovered that a unique cell compartment, the apical recycling endosome, controls directional budding of respiratory syncytial virus. We are studying the role of particular proteins, including Rabs, Rab-FIPs, and myosins on viral trafficking. We also have investigated the role of stress granules in RSV infection. Currently, scientists are exploring the role of viral proteins in controlling these processes. This work requires careful biochemistry, confocal and electron microscopy, and molecular biology.



Clinical Research Description



Immunology and Cell Biology of Virus Infection in Humans






Correia, BE, Bates, JT, Loomis, RJ, Baneyx, G, Carrico, C, Jardine, JG, Rupert, P, Correnti, C, Kalyuzhniy, O, Vittal, V, Connell, MJ, Stevens, E, Schroeter, A, Chen, M, Macpherson, S, Serra, AM, Adachi, Y, Holmes, MA, Li, Y, Klevit, RE, Graham, BS, Wyatt, RT, Baker, D, Strong, RK, Crowe, JE, Johnson, PR, Schief, WR. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design. Nature, 507(7491), 201-6, 2014

Bates, JT, Keefer, CJ, Slaughter, JC, Kulp, DW, Schief, WR, Crowe, JE. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein. Virology, 454-455, 139-44, 2014

Almagro, JC, Gilliland, GL, Breden, F, Scott, JK, Sok, D, Pauthner, M, Reichert, JM, Helguera, G, Andrabi, R, Mabry, R, Bl??ry, M, Voss, JE, Laur??n, J, Abuqayyas, L, Barghorn, S, Ben-Jacob, E, Crowe, JE, Huston, JS, Johnston, SA, Krauland, E, Lund-Johansen, F, Marasco, WA, Parren, PW, Xu, KY. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics: December 8-12, 2013, Huntington Beach, CA. MAbs, 6(3), 577-618, 2014

Fibriansah, G, Tan, JL, Smith, SA, de Alwis, AR, Ng, TS, Kostyuchenko, VA, Ibarra, KD, Wang, J, Harris, E, de Silva, A, Crowe, JE, Lok, SM. A potent anti-dengue human antibody preferentially recognizes the conformation of E protein monomers assembled on the virus surface. EMBO Mol Med, 6(3), 358-71, 2014

Messer, WB, de Alwis, R, Yount, BL, Royal, SR, Huynh, JP, Smith, SA, Crowe, JE, Doranz, BJ, Kahle, KM, Pfaff, JM, White, LJ, Sariol, CA, de Silva, AM, Baric, RS. Dengue virus envelope protein domain I/II hinge determines long-lived serotype-specific dengue immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 111(5), 1939-44, 2014

Alonas, E, Lifland, AW, Gudheti, M, Vanover, D, Jung, J, Zurla, C, Kirschman, J, Fiore, VF, Douglas, A, Barker, TH, Yi, H, Wright, ER, Crowe, JE, Santangelo, PJ. Combining single RNA sensitive probes with subdiffraction-limited and live-cell imaging enables the characterization of virus dynamics in cells. ACS Nano, 8(1), 302-15, 2014

Aiyegbo, MS, Eli, IM, Spiller, BW, Williams, DR, Kim, R, Lee, DE, Liu, T, Li, S, Stewart, PL, Crowe, JE. Differential Accessibility of a Rotavirus VP6 Epitope in Trimers Comprising Type I, II, or III Channels as Revealed by Binding of a Human Rotavirus VP6-Specific Antibody. J Virol, 88(1), 469-76, 2014

Aiyegbo, MS, Sapparapu, G, Spiller, BW, Eli, IM, Williams, DR, Kim, R, Lee, DE, Liu, T, Li, S, Woods, VL, Nannemann, DP, Meiler, J, Stewart, PL, Crowe, JE. Human rotavirus VP6-specific antibodies mediate intracellular neutralization by binding to a quaternary structure in the transcriptional pore. PLoS One, 8(5), e61101, 2013

Thornburg, NJ, Nannemann, DP, Blum, DL, Belser, JA, Tumpey, TM, Deshpande, S, Fritz, GA, Sapparapu, G, Krause, JC, Lee, JH, Ward, AB, Lee, DE, Li, S, Winarski, KL, Spiller, BW, Meiler, J, Crowe, JE. Human antibodies that neutralize respiratory droplet transmissible H5N1 influenza viruses. J Clin Invest, 123(10), 4405-9, 2013

Xu, R, Krause, JC, McBride, R, Paulson, JC, Crowe, JE, Wilson, IA. A recurring motif for antibody recognition of the receptor-binding site of influenza hemagglutinin. Nat Struct Mol Biol, 20(3), 363-70, 2013

Stone, JW, Thornburg, NJ, Blum, DL, Kuhn, SJ, Wright, DW, Crowe, JE. Gold nanorod vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus. Nanotechnology, 24(29), 295102, 2013

Crowe, JE. Universal flu vaccines: primum non nocere. Sci Transl Med, 5(200), 200fs34, 2013

Finn, JA, Crowe, JE. Impact of new sequencing technologies on studies of the human B cell repertoire. Curr Opin Immunol, 25(5), 613-8, 2013

Sapparapu, G, Sims, AL, Aiyegbo, MS, Shaikh, FY, Harth, EM, Crowe, JE. Intracellular neutralization of a virus using a cell-penetrating molecular transporter. Nanomedicine (Lond), 2013

Hong, M, Lee, PS, Hoffman, RM, Zhu, X, Krause, JC, Laursen, NS, Yoon, SI, Song, L, Tussey, L, Crowe, JE, Ward, AB, Wilson, IA. Antibody recognition of the pandemic H1N1 Influenza virus hemagglutinin receptor binding site. J Virol, 87(22), 12471-80, 2013

Munden, MM, Williams, JL, Zhang, W, Crowe, JE, Munden, RF, Cisek, LJ. Intermittent testicular torsion in the pediatric patient: sonographic indicators of a difficult diagnosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 201(4), 912-8, 2013

Crowe, JE. Immunology. Crowdsourcing immunity. Science, 340(6133), 692-3, 2013

Willis, JR, Briney, BS, DeLuca, SL, Crowe, JE, Meiler, J. Human germline antibody gene segments encode polyspecific antibodies. PLoS Comput Biol, 9(4), e1003045, 2013

Gilchuk, P, Spencer, CT, Conant, SB, Hill, T, Gray, JJ, Niu, X, Zheng, M, Erickson, JJ, Boyd, KL, McAfee, KJ, Oseroff, C, Hadrup, SR, Bennink, JR, Hildebrand, W, Edwards, KM, Crowe, JE, Williams, JV, Buus, S, Sette, A, Schumacher, TN, Link, AJ, Joyce, S. Discovering naturally processed antigenic determinants that confer protective T cell immunity. J Clin Invest, 123(5), 1976-87, 2013

Smith, SA, de Alwis, R, Kose, N, Durbin, AP, Whitehead, SS, de Silva, AM, Crowe, JE. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells following live attenuated dengue virus vaccination or natural infection exhibit similar characteristics. J Infect Dis, 207(12), 1898-908, 2013

Bates, JT, Keefer, CJ, Utley, TJ, Correia, BE, Schief, WR, Crowe, JE. Reversion of somatic mutations of the respiratory syncytial virus-specific human monoclonal antibody Fab19 reveal a direct relationship between association rate and neutralizing potency. J Immunol, 190(7), 3732-9, 2013

Hartman, ML, Xu, R, Crowe, BJ, Robison, LL, Erfurth, EM, Kleinberg, DL, Zimmermann, AG, Woodmansee, WW, Cutler, GB, Chipman, JJ, Melmed, S, , . Prospective safety surveillance of GH-deficient adults: comparison of GH-treated vs untreated patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 98(3), 980-8, 2013

Smith, SA, de Alwis, AR, Kose, N, Harris, E, Ibarra, KD, Kahle, KM, Pfaff, JM, Xiang, X, Doranz, BJ, de Silva, AM, Austin, SK, Sukupolvi-Petty, S, Diamond, MS, Crowe, JE. The potent and broadly neutralizing human dengue virus-specific monoclonal antibody 1C19 reveals a unique cross-reactive epitope on the bc loop of domain II of the envelope protein. MBio, 4(6), e00873-13, 2013

Shaikh, FY, Crowe, JE. Molecular mechanisms driving respiratory syncytial virus assembly. Future Microbiol, 8(1), 123-31, 2013

Crowe, JE. Influenza virus resistance to human neutralizing antibodies. MBio, 3(4), 2012

Engelhardt, BG, Sengsayadeth, SM, Jagasia, M, Savani, BN, Kassim, AA, Lu, P, Shyr, Y, Yoder, SM, Rock, MT, Crowe, JE. Tissue-specific regulatory T cells; biomarker for acute graft-versus-host disease and survival. Exp Hematol, 2012

Smith, SA, Zhou, Y, Olivarez, NP, Broadwater, AH, de Silva, AM, Crowe, JE. Persistence of circulating memory B cell clones with potential for dengue virus disease enhancement for decades following infection. J Virol, 86(5), 2665-75, 2012

Engelhardt, BG, Jagasia, SM, Crowe, JE, Griffith, ML, Savani, BN, Kassim, AA, Lu, P, Weitkamp, JH, Moore, DJ, Yoder, SM, Rock, MT, Jagasia, M. Predicting posttransplantation diabetes mellitus by regulatory T-cell phenotype: implications for metabolic intervention to modulate alloreactivity. Blood, 119(10), 2417-21, 2012

Shaikh, FY, Cox, RG, Lifland, AW, Hotard, AL, Williams, JV, Moore, ML, Santangelo, PJ, Crowe, JE. A critical phenylalanine residue in the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein cytoplasmic tail mediates assembly of internal viral proteins into viral filaments and particles. MBio, 3(1), 2012

Krause, JC, Tsibane, T, Tumpey, TM, Huffman, CJ, Albrecht, R, Blum, DL, Ramos, I, Fernandez-Sesma, A, Edwards, KM, Garc?-a-Sastre, A, Basler, CF, Crowe, JE. Human monoclonal antibodies to pandemic 1957 H2N2 and pandemic 1968 H3N2 influenza viruses. J Virol, 86(11), 6334-40, 2012

Briney, BS, Willis, JR, Crowe, JE. Human peripheral blood antibodies with long HCDR3s are established primarily at original recombination using a limited subset of germline genes. PLoS One, 7(5), e36750, 2012

Briney, BS, Willis, JR, Hicar, MD, Thomas, JW, Crowe, JE. Frequency and genetic characterization of V(DD)J recombinants in the human peripheral blood antibody repertoire. Immunology, 137(1), 56-64, 2012

Briney, BS, Willis, JR, McKinney, BA, Crowe, JE. High-throughput antibody sequencing reveals genetic evidence of global regulation of the na??ve and memory repertoires that extends across individuals. Genes Immun, 2012

Briney, BS, Willis, JR, Crowe, JE. Location and length distribution of somatic hypermutation-associated DNA insertions and deletions reveals regions of antibody structural plasticity. Genes Immun, 2012

Shaikh, FY, Utley, TJ, Craven, RE, Rogers, MC, Lapierre, LA, Goldenring, JR, Crowe, JE. Respiratory syncytial virus assembles into structured filamentous virion particles independently of host cytoskeleton and related proteins. PLoS One, 7(7), e40826, 2012

Thornburg, NJ, Hayward, SL, Crowe, JE. Respiratory syncytial virus regulates human microRNAs by using mechanisms involving beta interferon and NF-??B. MBio, 3(6), 2012

Krause, JC, Tsibane, T, Tumpey, TM, Huffman, CJ, Briney, BS, Smith, SA, Basler, CF, Crowe, JE. Epitope-specific human influenza antibody repertoires diversify by B cell intraclonal sequence divergence and interclonal convergence. J Immunol, 187(7), 3704-11, 2011

Rock, MT, McKinney, BA, Yoder, SM, Prudom, CE, Wright, DW, Crowe, JE. Identification of potential human respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus T cell epitopes using computational prediction and MHC binding assays. J Immunol Methods, 374(1-2), 13-7, 2011

Krause, JC, Tsibane, T, Tumpey, TM, Huffman, CJ, Basler, CF, Crowe, JE. A broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved, novel epitope on the globular head of the influenza H1N1 virus hemagglutinin. J Virol, 85(20), 10905-8, 2011

Lindquist, ME, Mainou, BA, Dermody, TS, Crowe, JE. Activation of protein kinase R is required for induction of stress granules by respiratory syncytial virus but dispensable for viral replication. Virology, 413(1), 103-10, 2011

Krause, JC, Ekiert, DC, Tumpey, TM, Smith, PB, Wilson, IA, Crowe, JE. An insertion mutation that distorts antibody binding site architecture enhances function of a human antibody. MBio, 2(1), e00345-10, 2011

Joyner, AS, Willis, JR, Crowe, JE, Aiken, C. Maturation-induced cloaking of neutralization epitopes on HIV-1 particles. PLoS Pathog, 7(9), e1002234, 2011

Lindquist, ME, Lifland, AW, Utley, TJ, Santangelo, PJ, Crowe, JE. Respiratory syncytial virus induces host RNA stress granules to facilitate viral replication. J Virol, 84(23), 12274-84, 2010

Thornburg, NJ, Shepherd, B, Crowe, JE. Transforming growth factor beta is a major regulator of human neonatal immune responses following respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Virol, 84(24), 12895-902, 2010

Williams, JV, Edwards, KM, Weinberg, GA, Griffin, MR, Hall, CB, Zhu, Y, Szilagyi, PG, Wang, CK, Yang, CF, Silva, D, Ye, D, Spaete, RR, Crowe, JE. Population-based incidence of human metapneumovirus infection among hospitalized children. J Infect Dis, 201(12), 1890-8, 2010

Xu, R, Ekiert, DC, Krause, JC, Hai, R, Crowe, JE, Wilson, IA. Structural basis of preexisting immunity to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. Science, 328(5976), 357-60, 2010

Engelhardt, BG, Jagasia, M, Savani, BN, Bratcher, NL, Greer, JP, Jiang, A, Kassim, AA, Lu, P, Schuening, F, Yoder, SM, Rock, MT, Crowe, JE. Regulatory T cell expression of CLA or alpha(4)beta(7) and skin or gut acute GVHD outcomes. Bone Marrow Transplant, 2010

Pishchany, G, McCoy, AL, Torres, VJ, Krause, JC, Crowe, JE, Fabry, ME, Skaar, EP. Specificity for human hemoglobin enhances Staphylococcus aureus infection. Cell Host Microbe, 8(6), 544-50, 2010

Engelhardt, BG, Crowe, JE. Homing in on Acute Graft vs. Host Disease: Tissue-Specific T Regulatory and Th17 Cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 2010

Krause, JC, Tumpey, TM, Huffman, CJ, McGraw, PA, Pearce, MB, Tsibane, T, Hai, R, Basler, CF, Crowe, JE. Naturally occurring human monoclonal antibodies neutralize both 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses. J Virol, 84(6), 3127-30, 2010

Hicar, MD, Kalams, SA, Spearman, PW, Crowe, JE. Emerging studies of human HIV-specific antibody repertoires. Vaccine, 28 Suppl 2, B18-23, 2010

Hicar, MD, Chen, X, Briney, B, Hammonds, J, Wang, JJ, Kalams, S, Spearman, PW, Crowe, JE. Pseudovirion particles bearing native HIV envelope trimers facilitate a novel method for generating human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 54(3), 223-35, 2010

Yang, CF, Wang, CK, Tollefson, SJ, Piyaratna, R, Lintao, LD, Chu, M, Liem, A, Mark, M, Spaete, RR, Crowe, JE, Williams, JV. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years. Virol J, 6, 138, 2009

Talbot, HK, Crowe, JE, Edwards, KM, Griffin, MR, Zhu, Y, Weinberg, GA, Szilagyi, PG, Hall, CB, Podsiad, AB, Iwane, M, Williams, JV, , . Coronavirus infection and hospitalizations for acute respiratory illness in young children. J Med Virol, 81(5), 853-6, 2009

Crowe, JE. Recent advances in the study of human antibody responses to influenza virus using optimized human hybridoma approaches. Vaccine, 27 Suppl 6, G47-51, 2009

Talbot, HK, Shepherd, BE, Crowe, JE, Griffin, MR, Edwards, KM, Podsiad, AB, Tollefson, SJ, Wright, PF, Williams, JV. The pediatric burden of human coronaviruses evaluated for twenty years. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 28(8), 682-7, 2009

Moore, ML, Chi, MH, Luongo, C, Lukacs, NW, Polosukhin, VV, Huckabee, MM, Newcomb, DC, Buchholz, UJ, Crowe, JE, Goleniewska, K, Williams, JV, Collins, PL, Peebles, RS. A Chimeric A2 Strain Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) with the Fusion Protein of RSV Strain Line 19 Exhibits Enhanced Viral Load, Mucus, and Airway Dysfunction. J Virol, 2009

Mok, H, Lee, S, Wright, DW, Crowe, JE. Enhancement of the CD8(+) T cell response to a subdominant epitope of respiratory syncytial virus by deletion of an immunodominant epitope. Vaccine, 2008

Yu, X, Tsibane, T, McGraw, PA, House, FS, Keefer, CJ, Hicar, MD, Tumpey, TM, Pappas, C, Perrone, LA, Martinez, O, Stevens, J, Wilson, IA, Aguilar, PV, Altschuler, EL, Basler, CF, Crowe, JE. Neutralizing antibodies derived from the B cells of 1918 influenza pandemic survivors. Nature, 455(7212), 532-6, 2008

Mok, H, Tollefson, SJ, Podsiad, AB, Shepherd, BE, Polosukhin, VV, Johnston, RE, Williams, JV, Crowe, JE. An alphavirus replicon-based human metapneumovirus vaccine is immunogenic and protective in mice and cotton rats. J Virol, 82(22), 11410-8, 2008

Derdowski, A, Peters, TR, Glover, N, Qian, R, Utley, TJ, Burnett, A, Williams, JV, Spearman, P, Crowe, JE. Human metapneumovirus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein interact and provide the minimal requirements for inclusion body formation. J Gen Virol, 89(Pt 11), 2698-708, 2008

Tian, C, Luskin, GK, Dischert, KM, Higginbotham, JN, Shepherd, BE, Crowe, JE. Immunodominance of the VH1-46 antibody gene segment in the primary repertoire of human rotavirus-specific B cells is reduced in the memory compartment through somatic mutation of nondominant clones. J Immunol, 180(5), 3279-88, 2008

Kallewaard, NL, McKinney, BA, Gu, Y, Chen, A, Prasad, BV, Crowe, JE. Functional maturation of the human antibody response to rotavirus. J Immunol, 180(6), 3980-9, 2008

Yu, X, McGraw, PA, House, FS, Crowe, JE. An optimized electrofusion-based protocol for generating virus-specific human monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol Methods, 336(2), 142-51, 2008

Utley, TJ, Ducharme, NA, Varthakavi, V, Shepherd, BE, Santangelo, PJ, Lindquist, ME, Goldenring, JR, Crowe, JE. Respiratory syncytial virus uses a Vps4-independent budding mechanism controlled by Rab11-FIP2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105(29), 10209-14, 2008

Mok, H, Lee, S, Utley, TJ, Shepherd, BE, Polosukhin, VV, Collier, ML, Davis, NL, Johnston, RE, Crowe, JE. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Replicon Particles Encoding Respiratory Syncytial Virus Surface Glycoproteins Induce Protective Mucosal Responses in Mice and Cotton Rats. J Virol, 2007

Tian, C, Luskin, GK, Dischert, KM, Higginbotham, JN, Shepherd, BE, Crowe, JE. Evidence for preferential Ig gene usage and differential TdT and exonuclease activities in human na??ve and memory B cells. Mol Immunol, 44(9), 2173-83, 2007

Williams, JV, Chen, Z, Cseke, G, Wright, DW, Keefer, CJ, Tollefson, SJ, Hessell, A, Podsiad, A, Shepherd, BE, Sanna, PP, Burton, DR, Crowe, JE, Williamson, RA. A recombinant human monoclonal antibody to human metapneumovirus fusion protein that neutralizes virus in vitro and is effective therapeutically in vivo. J Virol, 81(15), 8315-24, 2007

Miller, SA, Tollefson, S, Crowe, JE, Williams, JV, Wright, DW. Examination of a fusogenic hexameric core from human metapneumovirus and identification of a potent synthetic peptide inhibitor from the heptad repeat 1 region. J Virol, 81(1), 141-9, 2007

Cseke, G, Wright, DW, Tollefson, SJ, Johnson, JE, Crowe, JE, Williams, JV. Human metapneumovirus fusion protein vaccines that are immunogenic and protective in cotton rats. J Virol, 81(2), 698-707, 2007

McKinney, BA, Reif, DM, Rock, MT, Edwards, KM, Kingsmore, SF, Moore, JH, Crowe, JE. Cytokine expression patterns associated with systemic adverse events following smallpox immunization. J Infect Dis, 194(4), 444-53, 2006

Tian, C, Kron, GK, Dischert, KM, Higginbotham, JN, Crowe, JE. Low expression of the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor alpha chain and reduced signalling via the IL-4 receptor complex in human neonatal B cells. Immunology, 119(1), 54-62, 2006

McKinney, BA, Crowe, JE, Voss, HU, Crooke, PS, Barney, N, Moore, JH. Hybrid grammar-based approach to nonlinear dynamical system identification from biological time series. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys, 73(2 Pt 1), 021912, 2006

Williams, JV, Wang, CK, Yang, CF, Tollefson, SJ, House, FS, Heck, JM, Chu, M, Brown, JB, Lintao, LD, Quinto, JD, Chu, D, Spaete, RR, Edwards, KM, Wright, PF, Crowe, JE. The role of human metapneumovirus in upper respiratory tract infections in children: a 20-year experience. J Infect Dis, 193(3), 387-95, 2006

Rock, MT, Yoder, SM, Talbot, TR, Edwards, KM, Crowe, JE. Cellular immune responses to diluted and undiluted aventis pasteur smallpox vaccine. J Infect Dis, 194(4), 435-43, 2006

Lee, S, Miller, SA, Wright, DW, Rock, MT, Crowe, JE. Tissue-Specific Regulation of CD8+ T Lymphocyte Immunodominance in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection. J Virol, 2006

Tai, JH, Williams, JV, Edwards, KM, Wright, PF, Crowe, JE, Dermody, TS. Prevalence of reovirus-specific antibodies in young children in nashville, tennessee. J Infect Dis, 191(8), 1221-4, 2005

Weitkamp, JH, Kallewaard, NL, Bowen, AL, Lafleur, BJ, Greenberg, HB, Crowe, JE. VH1-46 is the dominant immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segment in rotavirus-specific memory B cells expressing the intestinal homing receptor alpha4beta7. J Immunol, 174(6), 3454-60, 2005

Shaklee, JF, Talbot, TR, Muldowney, JA, Vaughan, DE, Butler, J, House, F, Crowe, JE, Smith, LH, Edwards, KM. Smallpox vaccination does not elevate systemic levels of prothrombotic proteins associated with ischemic cardiac events. J Infect Dis, 191(5), 724-30, 2005

Kallewaard, NL, Bowen, AL, Crowe, JE. Cooperativity of actin and microtubule elements during replication of respiratory syncytial virus. Virology, 331(1), 73-81, 2005

Brock, SC, Heck, JM, McGraw, PA, Crowe, JE. The transmembrane domain of the respiratory syncytial virus F protein is an orientation-independent apical plasma membrane sorting sequence. J Virol, 79(19), 12528-35, 2005

Williams, JV, Martino, R, Rabella, N, Otegui, M, Parody, R, Heck, JM, Crowe, JE. A prospective study comparing human metapneumovirus with other respiratory viruses in adults with hematologic malignancies and respiratory tract infections. J Infect Dis, 192(6), 1061-5, 2005

Williams, JV, Tollefson, SJ, Johnson, JE, Crowe, JE. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is a permissive small animal model of human metapneumovirus infection, pathogenesis, and protective immunity. J Virol, 79(17), 10944-51, 2005

Williams, JV, Crowe, JE, Enriquez, R, Minton, P, Peebles, RS, Hamilton, RG, Higgins, S, Griffin, M, Hartert, TV. Human metapneumovirus infection plays an etiologic role in acute asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalization in adults. J Infect Dis, 192(7), 1149-53, 2005

Weitkamp, JH, Lafleur, BJ, Greenberg, HB, Crowe, JE. Natural evolution of a human virus-specific antibody gene repertoire by somatic hypermutation requires both hotspot-directed and randomly-directed processes. Hum Immunol, 66(6), 666-76, 2005

Chen, X, Rock, MT, Hammonds, J, Tartaglia, J, Shintani, A, Currier, J, Slike, B, Crowe, JE, Marovich, M, Spearman, P. Pseudovirion particle production by live poxvirus human immunodeficiency virus vaccine vector enhances humoral and cellular immune responses. J Virol, 79(9), 5537-47, 2005

Bentzen, EL, House, F, Utley, TJ, Crowe, JE, Wright, DW. Progression of respiratory syncytial virus infection monitored by fluorescent quantum dot probes. Nano Lett, 5(4), 591-5, 2005

Rock, MT, Yoder, SM, Wright, PF, Talbot, TR, Edwards, KM, Crowe, JE. Differential regulation of granzyme and perforin in effector and memory T cells following smallpox immunization. J Immunol, 174(6), 3757-64, 2005

Bowen, AL, Tian, C, LaFleur, BJ, Crowe, JE. Transcriptional control of activation-induced cytidine deaminase and error-prone DNA polymerases is functionally mature in the B cells of infants at birth. Hum Immunol, 67(1-2), 43-6, 2005

Weitkamp, JH, Lafleur, BJ, Crowe, JE. Rotavirus-specific CD5+ B cells in young children exhibit a distinct antibody repertoire compared with CD5- B cells. Hum Immunol, 67(1-2), 33-42, 2005

Talbot, TR, Stapleton, JT, Brady, RC, Winokur, PL, Bernstein, DI, Germanson, T, Yoder, SM, Rock, MT, Crowe, JE, Edwards, KM. Vaccination success rate and reaction profile with diluted and undiluted smallpox vaccine: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 292(10), 1205-12, 2004

Crowe, JE. Human metapneumovirus as a major cause of human respiratory tract disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 23(11 Suppl), S215-21, 2004

Rock, Michael T, Yoder, Sandra M, Talbot, Thomas R, Edwards, Kathryn M, Crowe, James E. Adverse events after smallpox immunizations are associated with alterations in systemic cytokine levels. J Infect Dis, 189(8), 1401-10, 2004

Suara, Rahaman O, Crowe, James E. Effect of zinc salts on respiratory syncytial virus replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48(3), 783-90, 2004

Williams, John V, Harris, Paul A, Tollefson, Sharon J, Halburnt-Rush, Lisa L, Pingsterhaus, Joyce M, Edwards, Kathryn M, Wright, Peter F, Crowe, James E. Human metapneumovirus and lower respiratory tract disease in otherwise healthy infants and children. N Engl J Med, 350(5), 443-50, 2004

, 2003

Rock, Michael T, Crowe, James E. Identification of a novel human leucocyte antigen-A*01-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope in the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein. Immunology, 108, 474-80, 2003

Venter, Marietjie, Rock, Michael, Puren, Adrian J, Tiemessen, Caroline T, Crowe, James E. Respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein-specific cytotoxic T-cell epitopes in a South African population of diverse HLA types are conserved in circulating field strains. J Virol, 77(13), 7319-29, 2003

Halasa, Natasha B, Whitlock, James A, McCurley, Thomas L, Smith, Jarrod A, Zhu, Quili, Ochs, Hans, Dermody, Terence S, Crowe, James E. Fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a patient with a novel mutation in the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein. Clin Infect Dis, 37(10), e136-41, 2003

Crowe, James E., Sannella, Edith C., Pfeiffer, Steffen, Zorn, George L., Azimzadeh, Agnes, Newman, Roland, Miller, Geraldine G., Pierson, Richard N. CD154 Regulates Primate Humoral Immunity to Influenza. Am J Transplant, 3, 680-688, 2003

Crowe, James E, Williams, John V. Immunology of viral respiratory tract infection in infancy. Paediatr Respir Rev, 4, 112-9, 2003

Weitkamp, J??rn Hendrik, Kallewaard, Nicole, Kusuhara, Koichi, Feigelstock, Dino, Feng, Ninguo, Greenberg, Harry B, Crowe, James E. Generation of recombinant human monoclonal antibodies to rotavirus from single antigen-specific B cells selected with fluorescent virus-like particles. J Immunol Methods, 275, 223-37, 2003

Brock, Sean C, Goldenring, James R, Crowe, James E. Apical recycling systems regulate directional budding of respiratory syncytial virus from polarized epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100(25), 15143-8, 2003

Weitkamp, Joern-Hendrik, Kallewaard, Nicole, Kusuhara, Koichi, Bures, Elizabeth, Williams, John V, LaFleur, Bonnie, Greenberg, Harry B, Crowe, James E. Infant and adult human B cell responses to rotavirus share common immunodominant variable gene repertoires. J Immunol, 171(9), 4680-8, 2003

Brock, Sean C, McGraw, Patricia A, Wright, Peter F, Crowe, James E. The human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor facilitates invasion of epithelial cells by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a strain-specific and cell type-specific manner. Infect Immun, 70, 5091-5, 2002

, 2002

Peters, Timothy R, Jennings, Mark T, Crowe, James E. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a girl with a midbrain glioma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 19(2), 141-3, 2002

Crowe, J E, Suara, R O, Brock, S, Kallewaard, N, House, F, Weitkamp, J H. Genetic and structural determinants of virus neutralizing antibodies. Immunol Res, 23(2-3), 135-45, 2001

Crowe, J E, Firestone, C Y, Murphy, B R. Passively acquired antibodies suppress humoral but not cell-mediated immunity in mice immunized with live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccines. J Immunol, 167(7), 3910-8, 2001

Weitkamp, J H, Crowe, J E. Blood donor leukocyte reduction filters as a source of human B lymphocytes. Biotechniques, 31(3), 464, 466, 2001

Crowe, J E. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development. Vaccine, 20 Suppl 1, S32-7, 2001

Pierson, R N, Crowe, J E, Pfeiffer, S, Atkinson, J, Azimzadeh, A, Miller, G G. CD40-ligand in primate cardiac allograft and viral immunity. Immunol Res, 23(2-3), 253-62, 2001

Crowe, J E. Influence of maternal antibodies on neonatal immunization against respiratory viruses. Clin Infect Dis, 33(10), 1720-7, 2001

Weitkamp J-H, Crowe JE Jr. Current approaches to vaccine development against disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Monatsschr Kinderheilkd, 148, 980-989, 2000

Peters, T R, Brumbaugh, D E, Lawton, A R, Crowe, J E. Recurrent pneumococcal arthritis as the presenting manifestation of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Clin Infect Dis, 31(5), 1287-8, 2000

Pastey, M K, Gower, T L, Spearman, P W, Crowe, J E, Graham, B S. A RhoA-derived peptide inhibits syncytium formation induced by respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3. Nat Med, 6(1), 35-40, 2000

Weitkamp, J H, Tang, Y W, Haas, D W, Midha, N K, Crowe, J E. Recurrent Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia associated with persistent lymph node infection in a patient with hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome. Clin Infect Dis, 31(5), 1183-7, 2000

Wright, P F, Karron, R A, Belshe, R B, Thompson, J, Crowe, J E, Boyce, T G, Halburnt, L L, Reed, G W, Whitehead, S S, Anderson, E L, Wittek, A E, Casey, R, Eichelberger, M, Thumar, B, Randolph, V B, Udem, S A, Chanock, R M, Murphy, B R. Evaluation of a live, cold-passaged, temperature-sensitive, respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate in infancy. J Infect Dis, 182(5), 1331-42, 2000

Crowe JE Jr, Randolph V, Murphy BR. The live attenuated subgroup B respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate RSV 2B33F is attenuated and immunogenic in chimpanzees, but exhibits partial loss of the ts phenotype following replication in vivo. Virus Research, 59, 13-22, 1999

Whitehead, S S, Firestone, C Y, Karron, R A, Crowe, J E, Elkins, W R, Collins, P L, Murphy, B R. Addition of a missense mutation present in the L gene of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cpts530/1030 to RSV vaccine candidate cpts248/404 increases its attenuation and temperature sensitivity. J Virol, 73(2), 871-7, 1999

Crowe, J E, Randolph, V, Murphy, B R. The live attenuated subgroup B respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate RSV 2B33F is attenuated and immunogenic in chimpanzees, but exhibits partial loss of the ts phenotype following replication in vivo. Virus Res, 59(1), 13-22, 1999

Pastey, M K, Crowe, J E, Graham, B S. RhoA interacts with the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus and facilitates virus-induced syncytium formation. J Virol, 73(9), 7262-70, 1999

Crowe, J E. Host responses to respiratory virus infection and immunization. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 236, 191-214, 1999

Fisher, R G, Crowe, J E, Johnson, T R, Tang, Y W, Graham, B S. Passive IgA monoclonal antibody is no more effective than IgG at protecting mice from mucosal challenge with respiratory syncytial virus. J Infect Dis, 180(4), 1324-7, 1999

Sakurai, H, Williamson, R A, Crowe, J E, Beeler, J A, Poignard, P, Bastidas, R B, Chanock, R M, Burton, D R. Human antibody responses to mature and immature forms of viral envelope in respiratory syncytial virus infection: significance for subunit vaccines. J Virol, 73(4), 2956-62, 1999

Crowe, J E. Immune responses of infants to infection with respiratory viruses and live attenuated respiratory virus candidate vaccines. Vaccine, 16(14-15), 1423-32, 1998

Crowe, J E, Gilmour, P S, Murphy, B R, Chanock, R M, Duan, L, Pomerantz, R J, Pilkington, G R. Isolation of a second recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus monoclonal antibody fragment (Fab RSVF2-5) that exhibits therapeutic efficacy in vivo. J Infect Dis, 177(4), 1073-6, 1998

Crowe, J E, Firestone, C Y, Crim, R, Beeler, J A, Coelingh, K L, Barbas, C F, Burton, D R, Chanock, R M, Murphy, B R. Monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants selected with a respiratory syncytial virus-neutralizing human antibody fab fragment (Fab 19) define a unique epitope on the fusion (F) glycoprotein. Virology, 252(2), 373-5, 1998

Juhasz, K, Whitehead, S S, Bui, P T, Biggs, J M, Crowe, J E, Boulanger, C A, Collins, P L, Murphy, B R. The temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype of a cold-passaged (cp) live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate, designated cpts530, results from a single amino acid substitution in the L protein. J Virol, 71(8), 5814-9, 1997

Crowe JE Jr, Murphy BR. Vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza type 3. New Generation Vaccines, 2nd ed, Levine MM, Woodrow GC, Kaper JB, Cobon GS, 711-725, 1997

Karron, R A, Wright, P F, Crowe, J E, Clements-Mann, M L, Thompson, J, Makhene, M, Casey, R, Murphy, B R. Evaluation of two live, cold-passaged, temperature-sensitive respiratory syncytial virus vaccines in chimpanzees and in human adults, infants, and children. J Infect Dis, 176(6), 1428-36, 1997

Firestone, C Y, Whitehead, S S, Collins, P L, Murphy, B R, Crowe, J E. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A cold-passaged (cp) temperature sensitive (ts) cpts-248/404 live attenuated virus vaccine candidate. Virology, 225(2), 419-22, 1996

Crowe JE Jr. The role of antibodies in respiratory viral immunity. Seminars in Virology, 7, 273-283, 1996

Crowe, J E, Bui, P T, Firestone, C Y, Connors, M, Elkins, W R, Chanock, R M, Murphy, B R. Live subgroup B respiratory syncytial virus vaccines that are attenuated, genetically stable, and immunogenic in rodents and nonhuman primates. J Infect Dis, 173(4), 829-39, 1996

Crowe, J E, Firestone, C Y, Whitehead, S S, Collins, P L, Murphy, B R. Acquisition of the ts phenotype by a chemically mutagenized cold-passaged human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate results from the acquisition of a single mutation in the polymerase (L) gene. Virus Genes, 13(3), 269-73, 1996

Crowe, J E. Current approaches to the development of vaccines against disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV). A meeting report of the WHO Programme for Vaccine Development. Vaccine, 13(4), 415-21, 1995

Connors, M, Crowe, J E, Firestone, C Y, Murphy, B R, Collins, P L. A cold-passaged, attenuated strain of human respiratory syncytial virus contains mutations in the F and L genes. Virology, 208(2), 478-84, 1995

Kulkarni, A B, Collins, P L, Bacik, I, Yewdell, J W, Bennink, J R, Crowe, J E, Murphy, B R. Cytotoxic T cells specific for a single peptide on the M2 protein of respiratory syncytial virus are the sole mediators of resistance induced by immunization with M2 encoded by a recombinant vaccinia virus. J Virol, 69(2), 1261-4, 1995

Crowe, J E, Bui, P T, Siber, G R, Elkins, W R, Chanock, R M, Murphy, B R. Cold-passaged, temperature-sensitive mutants of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are highly attenuated, immunogenic, and protective in seronegative chimpanzees, even when RSV antibodies are infused shortly before immunization. Vaccine, 13(9), 847-55, 1995

Hsu, K H, Crowe, J E, Lubeck, M D, Davis, A R, Hung, P P, Chanock, R M, Murphy, B R. Isolation and characterization of a highly attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidate by mutagenesis of the incompletely attenuated RSV A2 ts-1 NG-1 mutant virus. Vaccine, 13(5), 509-15, 1995

Crowe, J E, Murphy, B R, Chanock, R M, Williamson, R A, Barbas, C F, Burton, D R. Recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) monoclonal antibody Fab is effective therapeutically when introduced directly into the lungs of RSV-infected mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 91(4), 1386-90, 1994

Murphy BR, Crowe JE Jr, Lubeck MD, Hsu K-HL, Hall SL, Karron RA, Clements ML, Wright PF, Belshe RB, Chanock RM. Live attenuated vaccines for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV 3). Report of the 104th Ross Conference on Pediatric Research, published by Ross Products, 173-178, 1994

Crowe, J E, Bui, P T, Davis, A R, Chanock, R M, Murphy, B R. A further attenuated derivative of a cold-passaged temperature-sensitive mutant of human respiratory syncytial virus retains immunogenicity and protective efficacy against wild-type challenge in seronegative chimpanzees. Vaccine, 12(9), 783-90, 1994

Crowe, J E, Bui, P T, London, W T, Davis, A R, Hung, P P, Chanock, R M, Murphy, B R. Satisfactorily attenuated and protective mutants derived from a partially attenuated cold-passaged respiratory syncytial virus mutant by introduction of additional attenuating mutations during chemical mutagenesis. Vaccine, 12(8), 691-9, 1994

Murphy, B R, Hall, S L, Kulkarni, A B, Crowe, J E, Collins, P L, Connors, M, Karron, R A, Chanock, R M. An update on approaches to the development of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) vaccines. Virus Res, 32(1), 13-36, 1994

Crowe JE Jr, Murphy BR, Chanock RM, Williamson A, Barbas CF III, Burton DR. Human RSV monoclonal antibody Fab cloned from a combinatorial library and produced in E. coli is effective therapeutically when introduced directly into the lungs of RSV-infected mice. Brown F, Chanock RM, Ginsberg HS, Norrby E, eds. Vaccines 94: Modern Approaches to New Vaccines Including Prevention of AIDS. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 315-320, 1994

Crowe, J E, Cheung, P Y, Wallace, E F, Chanock, R M, Larrick, J W, Murphy, B R, Fry, K. Isolation and characterization of a chimpanzee monoclonal antibody to the G glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 1(6), 701-6, 1994

Crowe, J E, Collins, P L, London, W T, Chanock, R M, Murphy, B R. A comparison in chimpanzees of the immunogenicity and efficacy of live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) temperature-sensitive mutant vaccines and vaccinia virus recombinants that express the surface glycoproteins of RSV. Vaccine, 11(14), 1395-404, 1993

Chanock, R M, Crowe, J E, Murphy, B R, Burton, D R. Human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments cloned from combinatorial libraries: potential usefulness in prevention and/or treatment of major human viral diseases. Infect Agents Dis, 2(3), 118-31, 1993

Crowe JE Jr, Barbas CF III, Bui P, Cababa D, Jones TM, Zebedee SL, Murphy BR, Chanock RM, Burton DR. Human monoclonal Fab fragments derived from a combinatorial library bind to respiratory syncytial virus F glycoprotein and neutralize infectivity. Brown F, Chanock RM, Ginsberg HS, Lerner RA, eds. Vaccines 93: Modern Approaches to New Vaccines Including Prevention of AIDS. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory(), 7-11, 1993

Murphy BR, Hall SL, Crowe JE Jr, Collins PL, Subbarao EK, Connors M, London WT, Chanock RM. The use of chimpanzees in respiratory virus research. Erwin J, Landon JC, eds. Chimpanzee Conservation and Public Health: Environments for the Future, 21 28, 1992

Barbas, C F, Crowe, J E, Cababa, D, Jones, T M, Zebedee, S L, Murphy, B R, Chanock, R M, Burton, D R. Human monoclonal Fab fragments derived from a combinatorial library bind to respiratory syncytial virus F glycoprotein and neutralize infectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 89(21), 10164-8, 1992