Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology



  Spyros A. Kalams, M.D.



Associate Professor

Dept of Medicine

Dept of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology



Contact Information



Office Location:
MCN A-2205B
Phone: 615-322-8688

E-mail:  spyros.a.kalams@vanderbilt.edu/


Campus Mail Address:
Department of Medicine

MCN A-2200 (2582)


US Mailing address:

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Dept of Medicine

MCN A-2200

Nashville, TN 37232-2582







M.D., Univ of Connecticut
B.A., Harvard College



Research Keywords



T cell receptor, HIV, Hepatitis C, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes



Research Description



Dr. Kalams joined the Infectious Disease staff at Vanderbilt University in 2002. Dr. Kalams is currently the director of viral immunology studies in the Vanderbilt Infectious Diseases Unit and is a co-investigator of the Vanderbilt HIV Vaccine Trials Unit (under the direction of Dr. Peter Wright). He is also the immunology core director of the newly established Vanderbilt Center For AIDS Research. The core laboratory will feature state of the art facilities that will include a true Biosafety Level 3 working environment and a Becton-Dickenson FACSaria high-speed cell-sorter currently configured for 9-color flow cytometry enclosed within the BL3 laboratory. He was previously on staff at the Partners AIDS Research center and Harvard Medical School where he was the laboratory director of the Harvard HIV vaccine trial unit. He was also the head of the core immunology laboratory for the Partners Center for AIDS Research, and the director of the Harvard immunology laboratory for the AIDS clinical trials unit. His laboratory efforts are directed toward the development of vaccination strategies to induce HIV-1-specific helper and cytotoxic T-cell responses in HIV-negative subjects, and to augment HIV-specific immune responses in HIV-infected individuals. As part of this work, his laboratory is evaluating new strategies to quantitate HIV-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) and helper responses, which will be important for the evaluation of vaccines entering clinical trials.

Dr. Kalams was the first to demonstrate the persistence of HIV﷓1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones in vivo during chronic HIV infection, and has received NIH R01-funding to 1) Evaluate why CTL responses decline with disease progression, 2) Assess the T-cell repertoire of developing and established immune responses, and 3) Determine whether the avidity of developing CTL responses influences viral set point. Other research interests include understanding the mechanisms of immune escape from CTL recognition (to evaluate the role HIV sequence variation plays in disease progression), and the evaluation of CTL responses of patients with long-term non-progressing HIV-1 infection (to evaluate whether patients without disease progression have unique or more robust immune responses).

Dr. Kalams has mentored several fellows that have gone on to receive independent NIH funding and 2 of these fellows are currently on staff at the Partners AIDS Research Center/Massachusetts General Hospital. Of his current trainees, Dr. Dirk Meyer-Olson has had a recent manuscript accepted for publication in the Journal of Immunology. Dr. Meyer-Olson has also received independent funding to pursue research at Hanover Medical School in Germany. Another current trainee, Dr. Atif Siddique, is evaluating immune responses after therapeutic vaccination in ACTG trial a5058s. Dr. Siddique will be joining Dr. Kalams as a research instructor in Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

In addition to HIV-related research, Dr. Kalams has received funding for an R01 grant and a program project, both in collaboration with Dr. Christopher Walker (Ohio State University), to evaluate the evolution of immune responses in HCV-infected chimpanzees. These studies are designed to evaluate the role of the immune system in the control of this chronic viral infection.

Dr. Kalams was recently awarded a 5-year Elizabeth Glaser Scientist Award to evaluate HIV-specific immune responses in infected mother-child pairs. This award will specifically be used to complete a research project at GHESKIO in Haiti. Dr. Kalams has a research technologist who will spend the majority of her time at GHESKIO organizing this project and training research technologists and fellows at GHESKIO to perform state of the art immunology assays to evaluate HIV-specific immune responses.

Our future efforts in the laboratory will be to also evaluate the correlates of protective immunity for other intracellular



Clinical Research Description



Dr. Kalams is a co-P.I. of the Vanderbilt HIV Vaccine Trials Unit, and is interested in evaluating the immune responses generated by HIV vaccine candidates in HIV seronegative subjects.

As part of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group he is also interested in evaluating ways to augment HIV-specific immunity through therapeutic immunization of subjects infected with HIV.






Fuchs, JD, Frank, I, Elizaga, ML, Allen, M, Frahm, N, Kochar, N, Li, S, Edupuganti, S, Kalams, SA, Tomaras, GD, Sheets, R, Pensiero, M, Tremblay, MA, Higgins, TJ, Latham, T, Egan, MA, Clarke, DK, Eldridge, JH, , , Mulligan, M, Rouphael, N, Estep, S, Rybczyk, K, Dunbar, D, Buchbinder, S, Wagner, T, Isbell, R, Chinnell, V, Bae, J, Escamilla, G, Tseng, J, Fair, R, Ramirez, S, Broder, G, Briesemeister, L, Ferrara, A. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 gag Vaccine (HVTN 090). Open Forum Infect Dis, 2(3), ofv082, 2015

Lucas, A, Lucas, M, Strhyn, A, Keane, NM, McKinnon, E, Pavlos, R, Moran, EM, Meyer-Pannwitt, V, Gaudieri, S, D''Orsogna, L, Kalams, S, Ostrov, DA, Buus, S, Peters, B, Mallal, S, Phillips, E. Abacavir-reactive memory T cells are present in drug na??ve individuals. PLoS One, 10(2), e0117160, 2015

Chukwuma, VU, Hicar, MD, Chen, X, Nicholas, KJ, Joyner, A, Kalams, SA, Landucci, G, Forthal, DN, Spearman, PW, Crowe, JE. Association of VH4-59 Antibody Variable Gene Usage with Recognition of an Immunodominant Epitope on the HIV-1 Gag Protein. PLoS One, 10(7), e0133509, 2015

Frey, SE, Peiperl, L, McElrath, MJ, Kalams, S, Goepfert, PA, Keefer, MC, Baden, LR, Lally, MA, Mayer, K, Blattner, WA, Harro, CD, Hammer, SM, Gorse, GJ, Hural, J, Tomaras, GD, Levy, Y, Gilbert, P, deCamp, A, Russell, ND, Elizaga, M, Allen, M, Corey, L. Phase I/II randomized trial of safety and immunogenicity of LIPO-5 alone, ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) alone, and ALVAC-HIV (vCP1452) prime/LIPO-5 boost in healthy, HIV-1-uninfected adult participants. Clin Vaccine Immunol, 21(11), 1589-99, 2014

Malherbe, DC, Pissani, F, Sather, DN, Guo, B, Pandey, S, Sutton, WF, Stuart, AB, Robins, H, Park, B, Krebs, SJ, Schuman, JT, Kalams, S, Hessell, AJ, Haigwood, NL. Envelope variants circulating as initial neutralization breadth developed in two HIV-infected subjects stimulate multiclade neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. J Virol, 88(22), 12949-67, 2014

Finak, G, Frelinger, J, Jiang, W, Newell, EW, Ramey, J, Davis, MM, Kalams, SA, De Rosa, SC, Gottardo, R. OpenCyto: an open source infrastructure for scalable, robust, reproducible, and automated, end-to-end flow cytometry data analysis. PLoS Comput Biol, 10(8), e1003806, 2014

Sather, DN, Carbonetti, S, Malherbe, DC, Pissani, F, Stuart, AB, Hessell, AJ, Gray, MD, Mikell, I, Kalams, SA, Haigwood, NL, Stamatatos, L. Emergence of broadly neutralizing antibodies and viral coevolution in two subjects during the early stages of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol, 88(22), 12968-81, 2014

Kim, DH, Tate, J, Dresen, WF, Papa, FC, Bloch, KC, Kalams, SA, Ellis, CR, Baker, MT, Lenihan, DJ, Mendes, LA. Cardiac implanted electronic device-related infective endocarditis: clinical features, management, and outcomes of 80 consecutive patients. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol, 37(8), 978-85, 2014

Pandhare, J, Addai, AB, Mantri, CK, Hager, C, Smith, RM, Barnett, L, Villalta, F, Kalams, SA, Dash, C. Cocaine enhances HIV-1-induced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis: implications in disease progression in cocaine-abusing HIV-1 patients. Am J Pathol, 184(4), 927-36, 2014

Goepfert, PA, Elizaga, ML, Seaton, K, Tomaras, GD, Montefiori, DC, Sato, A, Hural, J, DeRosa, SC, Kalams, SA, McElrath, MJ, Keefer, MC, Baden, LR, Lama, JR, Sanchez, J, Mulligan, MJ, Buchbinder, SP, Hammer, SM, Koblin, BA, Pensiero, M, Butler, C, Moss, B, Robinson, HL, , , , . Specificity and 6-month durability of immune responses induced by DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines expressing HIV-1 virus-like particles. J Infect Dis, 210(1), 99-110, 2014

Kalams, SA, Parker, SD, Elizaga, M, Metch, B, Edupuganti, S, Hural, J, De Rosa, S, Carter, DK, Rybczyk, K, Frank, I, Fuchs, J, Koblin, B, Kim, DH, Joseph, P, Keefer, MC, Baden, LR, Eldridge, J, Boyer, J, Sherwat, A, Cardinali, M, Allen, M, Pensiero, M, Butler, C, Khan, AS, Yan, J, Sardesai, NY, Kublin, JG, Weiner, DB, , . Safety and comparative immunogenicity of an HIV-1 DNA vaccine in combination with plasmid interleukin 12 and impact of intramuscular electroporation for delivery. J Infect Dis, 208(5), 818-29, 2013

Nicholas, KJ, Zern, EK, Barnett, L, Smith, RM, Lorey, SL, Copeland, CA, Sadagopal, S, Kalams, SA. B cell responses to HIV antigen are a potent correlate of viremia in HIV-1 infection and improve with PD-1 blockade. PLoS One, 8(12), e84185, 2013

Hulgan, T, Robbins, GK, Kalams, SA, Samuels, DC, Grady, B, Shafer, R, Murdock, DG, Selph, D, Haas, DW, Pollard, RB, , . T cell activation markers and African mitochondrial DNA haplogroups among non-Hispanic black participants in AIDS clinical trials group study 384. PLoS One, 7(8), e43803, 2012

Fiske, CT, de Almeida, AS, Shintani, AK, Kalams, SA, Sterling, TR. Abnormal immune responses in persons with previous extrapulmonary tuberculosis in an in vitro model that simulates in vivo infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol, 19(8), 1142-9, 2012

Conrad, JA, Ramalingam, RK, Duncan, CB, Smith, RM, Wei, J, Barnett, L, Simons, BC, Lorey, SL, Kalams, SA. Antiretroviral therapy reduces the magnitude and T cell receptor repertoire diversity of HIV-specific T cell responses without changing T cell clonotype dominance. J Virol, 86(8), 4213-21, 2012

Kalams, SA, Parker, S, Jin, X, Elizaga, M, Metch, B, Wang, M, Hural, J, Lubeck, M, Eldridge, J, Cardinali, M, Blattner, WA, Sobieszczyk, M, Suriyanon, V, Kalichman, A, Weiner, DB, Baden, LR, , . Safety and immunogenicity of an HIV-1 gag DNA vaccine with or without IL-12 and/or IL-15 plasmid cytokine adjuvant in healthy, HIV-1 uninfected adults. PLoS One, 7(1), e29231, 2012

de Almeida, AS, Fiske, CT, Sterling, TR, Kalams, SA. Increased frequency of regulatory T cells and T lymphocyte activation in persons with previously treated extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol, 19(1), 45-52, 2012

Grady, BJ, Samuels, DC, Robbins, GK, Selph, D, Canter, JA, Pollard, RB, Haas, DW, Shafer, R, Kalams, SA, Murdock, DG, Ritchie, MD, Hulgan, T, , . Mitochondrial genomics and CD4 T-cell count recovery after antiretroviral therapy initiation in AIDS clinical trials group study 384. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 58(4), 363-70, 2011

Conrad, JA, Ramalingam, RK, Smith, RM, Barnett, L, Lorey, SL, Wei, J, Simons, BC, Sadagopal, S, Meyer-Olson, D, Kalams, SA. Dominant clonotypes within HIV-specific T cell responses are programmed death-1high and CD127low and display reduced variant cross-reactivity. J Immunol, 186(12), 6871-85, 2011

Meyer-Olson, D, Simons, BC, Conrad, JA, Smith, RM, Barnett, L, Lorey, SL, Duncan, CB, Ramalingam, R, Kalams, SA. Clonal expansion and TCR-independent differentiation shape the HIV-specific CD8+ effector-memory T-cell repertoire in vivo. Blood, 116(3), 396-405, 2010

Sadagopal, S, Lorey, SL, Barnett, L, Sutherland, D, Basham, R, Erdem, H, Kalams, SA, Haas, DW. Enhanced PD-1 expression by T cells in cerebrospinal fluid does not reflect functional exhaustion during chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol, 84(1), 131-40, 2010

Kernodle, DS, Sadagopal, S, Kalams, SA. Re: Misleading comments in Ranganathan et al. "Recombinant pro-apoptotic Mycobacterium tuberculosis generates CD8+ T cell responses against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env and M. tuberculosis in neonatal mice". Vaccine, 28(9), 2064-5, 2010

Hicar, MD, Kalams, SA, Spearman, PW, Crowe, JE. Emerging studies of human HIV-specific antibody repertoires. Vaccine, 28 Suppl 2, B18-23, 2010

Hicar, MD, Chen, X, Briney, B, Hammonds, J, Wang, JJ, Kalams, S, Spearman, PW, Crowe, JE. Pseudovirion particles bearing native HIV envelope trimers facilitate a novel method for generating human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 54(3), 223-35, 2010

Sather, DN, Armann, J, Ching, LK, Mavrantoni, A, Sellhorn, G, Caldwell, Z, Yu, X, Wood, B, Self, S, Kalams, S, Stamatatos, L. Factors associated with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol, 83(2), 757-69, 2009

Spearman, P, Kalams, S, Elizaga, M, Metch, B, Chiu, YL, Allen, M, Weinhold, KJ, Ferrari, G, Parker, SD, McElrath, MJ, Frey, SE, Fuchs, JD, Keefer, MC, Lubeck, MD, Egan, M, Braun, R, Eldridge, JH, Haynes, BF, Corey, L, , . Safety and immunogenicity of a CTL multiepitope peptide vaccine for HIV with or without GM-CSF in a phase I trial. Vaccine, 27(2), 243-9, 2009

Sadagopal, S, Braunstein, M, Hager, CC, Wei, J, Daniel, AK, Bochan, MR, Crozier, I, Smith, NE, Gates, HO, Barnett, L, Van Kaer, L, Price, JO, Blackwell, TS, Kalams, SA, Kernodle, DS. Reducing the activity and secretion of microbial antioxidants enhances the immunogenicity of BCG. PLoS One, 4(5), e5531, 2009

Schneidewind, A, Tang, Y, Brockman, MA, Ryland, EG, Dunkley-Thompson, J, Steel-Duncan, JC, St John, MA, Conrad, JA, Kalams, SA, Noel, F, Allen, TM, Christie, CD, Feeney, ME. Maternal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus escape mutations subverts HLA-B57 immunodominance but facilitates viral control in the haploidentical infant. J Virol, 83(17), 8616-27, 2009

Kang, Y, Li, D, Kalams, SA, Eid, JE. DC-Dielectrophoretic separation of biological cells by size. Biomed Microdevices, 10(2), 243-9, 2008

Antons, AK, Wang, R, Oswald-Richter, K, Tseng, M, Arendt, CW, Kalams, SA, Unutmaz, D. Naive precursors of human regulatory T cells require FoxP3 for suppression and are susceptible to HIV infection. J Immunol, 180(2), 764-73, 2008

Ramalingam, RK, Meyer-Olson, D, Shoukry, NH, Bowen, DG, Walker, CM, Kalams, SA. Kinetic analysis by real-time PCR of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cells in peripheral blood and liver after challenge with HCV. J Virol, 82(21), 10487-92, 2008

Sadagopal, S, Lorey, SL, Barnett, L, Basham, R, Lebo, L, Erdem, H, Haman, K, Avison, M, Waddell, K, Haas, DW, Kalams, SA. Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid compared to those in blood among antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-positive subjects. J Virol, 82(21), 10418-28, 2008

Antons, AK, Wang, R, Kalams, SA, Unutmaz, D. Suppression of HIV-specific and allogeneic T cell activation by human regulatory T cells is dependent on the strength of signals. PLoS One, 3(8), e2952, 2008

Wang, YN, Kang, Y, Xu, D, Chon, CH, Barnett, L, Kalams, SA, Li, D, Li, D. On-chip counting the number and the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Lab Chip, 8(2), 309-15, 2008

Simons, BC, Vancompernolle, SE, Smith, RM, Wei, J, Barnett, L, Lorey, SL, Meyer-Olson, D, Kalams, SA. Despite biased TRBV gene usage against a dominant HLA B57-restricted epitope, TCR diversity can provide recognition of circulating epitope variants. J Immunol, 181(7), 5137-46, 2008

Hajizadeh, R, Sato, H, Carlisle, J, Nadaf, MT, Evans, W, Shepherd, BE, Miller, RF, Kalams, SA, Drake, WP. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen 85A induces Th-1 immune responses in systemic sarcoidosis. J Clin Immunol, 27(4), 445-54, 2007

Simons, BC, Kalams, SA. The potential role of epitope-specific T-cell receptor diversity in the control of HIV replication. Curr Opin HIV AIDS, 2(3), 177-82, 2007

Oswald-Richter, K, Grill, SM, Leelawong, M, Tseng, M, Kalams, SA, Hulgan, T, Haas, DW, Unutmaz, D. Identification of a CCR5-expressing T cell subset that is resistant to R5-tropic HIV infection. PLoS Pathog, 3(4), e58, 2007

Fu, TM, Dubey, SA, Mehrotra, DV, Freed, DC, Trigona, WL, Adams-Muhler, L, Clair, JH, Evans, TG, Steigbigel, R, Jacobson, JM, Goepfert, PA, Mulligan, MJ, Kalams, SA, Rinaldo, C, Zhu, L, Cox, KS, Guan, L, Long, R, Persaud, N, Caulfield, MJ, Sadoff, JC, Emini, EA, Thaler, S, Shiver, JW. Evaluation of cellular immune responses in subjects chronically infected with HIV type 1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 23(1), 67-76, 2007

Koibuchi, T, Allen, TM, Lichterfeld, M, Mui, SK, O''Sullivan, KM, Trocha, A, Kalams, SA, Johnson, RP, Walker, BD. Limited sequence evolution within persistently targeted CD8 epitopes in chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol, 79(13), 8171-81, 2005

Meyer-Olson, D, Brady, KW, Bartman, MT, O''sullivan, KM, Simons, BC, Conrad, JA, Duncan, CB, Lorey, S, Siddique, A, Draenert, RA, Addo, M, Altfeld, M, Rosenberg, E, Allen, TM, Walker, BD, Kalams, SA. Fluctuations of functionally distinct CD8+ T cell clonotypes demonstrate flexibility of the HIV-specific TCR repertoire. Blood, 2005

Cox, Josephine H, Ferrari, Guido, Kalams, Spyros A, Lopaczynski, Wlodek, Oden, Neal, D''souza, M Patricia, , . Results of an ELISPOT proficiency panel conducted in 11 laboratories participating in international human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine trials. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 21(1), 68-81, 2005

Lebedeva, Tatiana, Anikeeva, Nadja, Kalams, Spyros A, Walker, Bruce D, Gaidarov, Ibragim, Keen, James H, Sykulev, Yuri. Major histocompatibility complex class I-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 association on the surface of target cells: implications for antigen presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunology, 113(4), 460-71, 2004

Meyer-Olson, Dirk, Shoukry, Naglaa H, Brady, Kristen W, Kim, Helen, Olson, Douglas P, Hartman, Kelly, Shintani, Ayumi K, Walker, Christopher M, Kalams, Spyros A. Limited T cell receptor diversity of HCV-specific T cell responses is associated with CTL escape. J Exp Med, 200(3), 307-19, 2004

Yang, Otto O, Sarkis, Phuong Thi Nguyen, Ali, Ayub, Harlow, Jason D, Brander, Christian, Kalams, Spyros A, Walker, Bruce D. Determinant of HIV-1 mutational escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes.. J Exp Med, 197(10), 1365-75, 2003

Yang, Otto O, Sarkis, Phuong T Nguyen, Trocha, Alicja, Kalams, Spyros A, Johnson, R Paul, Walker, Bruce D. Impacts of avidity and specificity on the antiviral efficiency of HIV-1-specific CTL.. J Immunol, 171(7), 3718-24, 2003

Anikeeva, Nadja, Lebedeva, Tatiana, Sumaroka, Marina, Kalams, Spyros A, Sykulev, Yuri. Soluble HIV-specific T cell receptor: expression, purification and analysis of the specificity.. J Immunol Methods, 277(1-2), 75-86, 2003

Meyer-Olson, Dirk, Brady, Kristen W, Blackard, Jason T, Allen, Todd M, Islam, Sabina, Shoukry, Naglaa H, Hartman, Kelly, Walker, Christopher M, Kalams, Spyros A. Analysis of the TCR beta variable gene repertoire in chimpanzees: identification of functional homologs to human pseudogenes.. J Immunol, 170(8), 4161-9, 2003

Anikeeva, Nadja, Lebedeva, Tatiana, Krogsgaard, Michelle, Tetin, Sergey Y, Martinez-Hackert, Erik, Kalams, Spyros A, Davis, Mark M, Sykulev, Yuri. Distinct molecular mechanisms account for the specificity of two different T-cell receptors.. Biochemistry, 42(16), 4709-16, 2003

Valdez, Hernan, Mitsuyasu, Ronald, Landay, Alan, Sevin, Anne D, Chan, Ellen S, Spritzler, John, Kalams, Spyros A, Pollard, Richard B, Fahey, John, Fox, Lawrence, Namkung, Ann, Estep, Scharla, Moss, Ronald, Sahner, David, Lederman, Michael M. Interleukin-2 Increases CD4+ lymphocyte numbers but does not enhance responses to immunization: results of A5046s.. J Infect Dis, 187(2), 320-5, 2003

Draenert, Rika, Altfeld, Marcus, Brander, Christian, Basgoz, Nesli, Corcoran, Colleen, Wurcel, Alysse G, Stone, David R, Kalams, Spyros A, Trocha, Alicja, Addo, Marylyn M, Goulder, Philip J R, Walker, Bruce D. Comparison of overlapping peptide sets for detection of antiviral CD8 and CD4 T cell responses.. J Immunol Methods, 275(1-2), 19-29, 2003

Kalams, Spyros A. Cellular immunity for prevention and clearance of HIV infection.. Curr Mol Med, 3(3), 195-208, 2003

Yang, Otto O, Nguyen, Phuong Thi, Kalams, Spyros A, Dorfman, Tanya, G??ttlinger, Heinrich G, Stewart, Sheila, Chen, Irvin S Y, Threlkeld, Steven, Walker, Bruce D. Nef-mediated resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes.. J Virol, 76(4), 1626-31, 2002

Cohen, George B, Islam, Sabina A, Noble, Miriam S, Lau, Christina, Brander, Christian, Altfeld, Marcus A, Rosenberg, Eric S, Schmitz, J??rn E, Cameron, Thomas O, Kalams, Spyros A. Clonotype tracking of TCR repertoires during chronic virus infections.. Virology, 304(2), 474-84, 2002

Altfeld, M, Addo, M M, Eldridge, R L, Yu, X G, Thomas, S, Khatri, A, Strick, D, Phillips, M N, Cohen, G B, Islam, S A, Kalams, S A, Brander, C, Goulder, P J, Rosenberg, E S, Walker, B D, , . Vpr is preferentially targeted by CTL during HIV-1 infection.. J Immunol, 167(5), 2743-52, 2001

Hochberg, E P, Chillemi, A C, Wu, C J, Neuberg, D, Canning, C, Hartman, K, Alyea, E P, Soiffer, R J, Kalams, S A, Ritz, J. Quantitation of T-cell neogenesis in vivo after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in adults.. Blood, 98(4), 1116-21, 2001

Day, C L, Shea, A K, Altfeld, M A, Olson, D P, Buchbinder, S P, Hecht, F M, Rosenberg, E S, Walker, B D, Kalams, S A. Relative dominance of epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons with shared HLA alleles.. J Virol, 75(14), 6279-91, 2001

Islam, S A, Hay, C M, Hartman, K E, He, S, Shea, A K, Trocha, A K, Dynan, M J, Reshamwala, N, Buchbinder, S P, Basgoz, N O, Kalams, S A. Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones in a subject with rapid disease progression.. J Virol, 75(10), 4907-11, 2001

Altfeld, M A, Livingston, B, Reshamwala, N, Nguyen, P T, Addo, M M, Shea, A, Newman, M, Fikes, J, Sidney, J, Wentworth, P, Chesnut, R, Eldridge, R L, Rosenberg, E S, Robbins, G K, Brander, C, Sax, P E, Boswell, S, Flynn, T, Buchbinder, S, Goulder, P J, Walker, B D, Sette, A, Kalams, S A. Identification of novel HLA-A2-restricted human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes predicted by the HLA-A2 supertype peptide-binding motif.. J Virol, 75(3), 1301-11, 2001

Goulder, P J, Altfeld, M A, Rosenberg, E S, Nguyen, T, Tang, Y, Eldridge, R L, Addo, M M, He, S, Mukherjee, J S, Phillips, M N, Bunce, M, Kalams, S A, Sekaly, R P, Walker, B D, Brander, C. Substantial differences in specificity of HIV-specific cytotoxic T cells in acute and chronic HIV infection.. J Exp Med, 193(2), 181-94, 2001

Flores-Villanueva, P O, Yunis, E J, Delgado, J C, Vittinghoff, E, Buchbinder, S, Leung, J Y, Uglialoro, A M, Clavijo, O P, Rosenberg, E S, Kalams, S A, Braun, J D, Boswell, S L, Walker, B D, Goldfeld, A E. Control of HIV-1 viremia and protection from AIDS are associated with HLA-Bw4 homozygosity.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98(9), 5140-5, 2001

Altfeld, M A, Trocha, A, Eldridge, R L, Rosenberg, E S, Phillips, M N, Addo, M M, Sekaly, R P, Kalams, S A, Burchett, S A, McIntosh, K, Walker, B D, Goulder, P J. Identification of dominant optimal HLA-B60- and HLA-B61-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes: rapid characterization of CTL responses by enzyme-linked immunospot assay.. J Virol, 74(18), 8541-9, 2000

Poznansky, M C, Evans, R H, Foxall, R B, Olszak, I T, Piascik, A H, Hartman, K E, Brander, C, Meyer, T H, Pykett, M J, Chabner, K T, Kalams, S A, Rosenzweig, M, Scadden, D T. Efficient generation of human T cells from a tissue-engineered thymic organoid.. Nat Biotechnol, 18(7), 729-34, 2000

Goulder, P J, Brander, C, Annamalai, K, Mngqundaniso, N, Govender, U, Tang, Y, He, S, Hartman, K E, O'Callaghan, C A, Ogg, G S, Altfeld, M A, Rosenberg, E S, Cao, H, Kalams, S A, Hammond, M, Bunce, M, Pelton, S I, Burchett, S A, McIntosh, K, Coovadia, H M, Walker, B D. Differential narrow focusing of immunodominant human immunodeficiency virus gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in infected African and caucasoid adults and children.. J Virol, 74(12), 5679-90, 2000

Severino, M E, Sipsas, N V, Nguyen, P T, Kalams, S A, Walker, B D, Johnson, R P, Yang, O O. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.. J Virol, 74(14), 6695-9, 2000

Goulder, P J, Tang, Y, Brander, C, Betts, M R, Altfeld, M, Annamalai, K, Trocha, A, He, S, Rosenberg, E S, Ogg, G, O'Callaghan, C A, Kalams, S A, McKinney, R E, Mayer, K, Koup, R A, Pelton, S I, Burchett, S K, McIntosh, K, Walker, B D. Functionally inert HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes do not play a major role in chronically infected adults and children.. J Exp Med, 192(12), 1819-32, 2000

Tremblay, C L, Giguel, F, Merrill, D P, Wong, J T, Rosenberg, E, Kalams, S, Walker, B D, D'Aquila, R T, Hirsch, M S. Marked differences in quantity of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 detected in persons with controlled plasma viremia by a simple enhanced culture method.. J Clin Microbiol, 38(11), 4246-8, 2000

Kalams, S A, Buchbinder, S P, Rosenberg, E S, Billingsley, J M, Colbert, D S, Jones, N G, Shea, A K, Trocha, A K, Walker, B D. Association between virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and helper responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.. J Virol, 73(8), 6715-20, 1999

Kalams, S A, Goulder, P J, Shea, A K, Jones, N G, Trocha, A K, Ogg, G S, Walker, B D. Levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte effector and memory responses decline after suppression of viremia with highly active antiretroviral therapy.. J Virol, 73(8), 6721-8, 1999

Brander, C, Yang, O O, Jones, N G, Lee, Y, Goulder, P, Johnson, R P, Trocha, A, Colbert, D, Hay, C, Buchbinder, S, Bergmann, C C, Zweerink, H J, Wolinsky, S, Blattner, W A, Kalams, S A, Walker, B D. Efficient processing of the immunodominant, HLA-A*0201-restricted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope despite multiple variations in the epitope flanking sequences.. J Virol, 73(12), 10191-8, 1999

Brander, C, Goulder, P J, Luzuriaga, K, Yang, O O, Hartman, K E, Jones, N G, Walker, B D, Kalams, S A. Persistent HIV-1-specific CTL clonal expansion despite high viral burden post in utero HIV-1 infection.. J Immunol, 162(8), 4796-800, 1999

Quayle, A J, Coston, W M, Trocha, A K, Kalams, S A, Mayer, K H, Anderson, D J. Detection of HIV-1-specific CTLs in the semen of HIV-infected individuals.. J Immunol, 161(8), 4406-10, 1998

Kalams, S A, Walker, B D. The critical need for CD4 help in maintaining effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.. J Exp Med, 188(12), 2199-204, 1998

Shen, D F, Doukhan, L, Kalams, S, Delwart, E. High-resolution analysis of T-cell receptor beta-chain repertoires using DNA heteroduplex tracking: generally stable, clonal CD8+ expansions in all healthy young adults.. J Immunol Methods, 215(1-2), 113-21, 1998

Brander, C, Hartman, K E, Trocha, A K, Jones, N G, Johnson, R P, Korber, B, Wentworth, P, Buchbinder, S P, Wolinsky, S, Walker, B D, Kalams, S A. Lack of strong immune selection pressure by the immunodominant, HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in chronic human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.. J Clin Invest, 101(11), 2559-66, 1998

Kalams, S A. Latent infection of cells in HIV disease: abstract and commentary.. JAMA, 279(10), 807-8, 1998

Wagner, L, Yang, O O, Garcia-Zepeda, E A, Ge, Y, Kalams, S A, Walker, B D, Pasternack, M S, Luster, A D. Beta-chemokines are released from HIV-1-specific cytolytic T-cell granules complexed to proteoglycans.. Nature, 391(6670), 908-11, 1998

Collins, K L, Chen, B K, Kalams, S A, Walker, B D, Baltimore, D. HIV-1 Nef protein protects infected primary cells against killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.. Nature, 391(6665), 397-401, 1998

Connor, R I, Korber, B T, Graham, B S, Hahn, B H, Ho, D D, Walker, B D, Neumann, A U, Vermund, S H, Mestecky, J, Jackson, S, Fenamore, E, Cao, Y, Gao, F, Kalams, S, Kunstman, K J, McDonald, D, McWilliams, N, Trkola, A, Moore, J P, Wolinsky, S M. Immunological and virological analyses of persons infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 while participating in trials of recombinant gp120 subunit vaccines.. J Virol, 72(2), 1552-76, 1998

Cao, H, Kanki, P, Sankal??, J L, Dieng-Sarr, A, Mazzara, G P, Kalams, S A, Korber, B, Mboup, S, Walker, B D. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte cross-reactivity among different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clades: implications for vaccine development.. J Virol, 71(11), 8615-23, 1997

Rosenberg, E S, Billingsley, J M, Caliendo, A M, Boswell, S L, Sax, P E, Kalams, S A, Walker, B D. Vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with control of viremia.. Science, 278(5342), 1447-50, 1997

Walter, J B, Brander, C, Mammen, M, Garboczi, D N, Kalams, S A, Whitesides, G M, Walker, B D, Eisen, H N. Stimulation of human cytotoxic T cells with HIV-1-derived peptides presented by recombinant HLA-A2 peptide complexes.. Int Immunol, 9(3), 451-9, 1997

Sipsas, N V, Kalams, S A, Trocha, A, He, S, Blattner, W A, Walker, B D, Johnson, R P. Identification of type-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to homologous viral proteins in laboratory workers accidentally infected with HIV-1.. J Clin Invest, 99(4), 752-62, 1997

Yang, O O, Kalams, S A, Trocha, A, Cao, H, Luster, A, Johnson, R P, Walker, B D. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by CD8+ cells: evidence for HLA class I-restricted triggering of cytolytic and noncytolytic mechanisms.. J Virol, 71(4), 3120-8, 1997

Threlkeld, S C, Wentworth, P A, Kalams, S A, Wilkes, B M, Ruhl, D J, Keogh, E, Sidney, J, Southwood, S, Walker, B D, Sette, A. Degenerate and promiscuous recognition by CTL of peptides presented by the MHC class I A3-like superfamily: implications for vaccine development.. J Immunol, 159(4), 1648-57, 1997

Yang, O O, Tran, A C, Kalams, S A, Johnson, R P, Roberts, M R, Walker, B D. Lysis of HIV-1-infected cells and inhibition of viral replication by universal receptor T cells.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94(21), 11478-83, 1997

Wilson, C C, Kalams, S A, Wilkes, B M, Ruhl, D J, Gao, F, Hahn, B H, Hanson, I C, Luzuriaga, K, Wolinsky, S, Koup, R, Buchbinder, S P, Johnson, R P, Walker, B D. Overlapping epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 presented by HLA A, B, and C molecules: effects of viral variation on cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition.. J Virol, 71(2), 1256-64, 1997

Freedman, A R, Zhu, H, Levine, J D, Kalams, S, Scadden, D T. Generation of human T lymphocytes from bone marrow CD34+ cells in vitro.. Nat Med, 2(1), 46-51, 1996

Harrer, T, Harrer, E, Kalams, S A, Barbosa, P, Trocha, A, Johnson, R P, Elbeik, T, Feinberg, M B, Buchbinder, S P, Walker, B D. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes in asymptomatic long-term nonprogressing HIV-1 infection. Breadth and specificity of the response and relation to in vivo viral quasispecies in a person with prolonged infection and low viral load.. J Immunol, 156(7), 2616-23, 1996

Harrer, T, Harrer, E, Kalams, S A, Elbeik, T, Staprans, S I, Feinberg, M B, Cao, Y, Ho, D D, Yilma, T, Caliendo, A M, Johnson, R P, Buchbinder, S P, Walker, B D. Strong cytotoxic T cell and weak neutralizing antibody responses in a subset of persons with stable nonprogressing HIV type 1 infection.. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 12(7), 585-92, 1996

Rosenzweig, M, Marks, D F, Zhu, H, Hempel, D, Mansfield, K G, Sehgal, P K, Kalams, S, Scadden, D T, Johnson, R P. In vitro T lymphopoiesis of human and rhesus CD34+ progenitor cells.. Blood, 87(10), 4040-8, 1996

Kalams, S A, Johnson, R P, Dynan, M J, Hartman, K E, Harrer, T, Harrer, E, Trocha, A K, Blattner, W A, Buchbinder, S P, Walker, B D. T cell receptor usage and fine specificity of human immunodeficiency virus 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones: analysis of quasispecies recognition reveals a dominant response directed against a minor in vivo variant.. J Exp Med, 183(4), 1669-79, 1996

Yang, O O, Kalams, S A, Rosenzweig, M, Trocha, A, Jones, N, Koziel, M, Walker, B D, Johnson, R P. Efficient lysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.. J Virol, 70(9), 5799-806, 1996

Price, P, Johnson, R P, Scadden, D T, Jassoy, C, Rosenthal, T, Kalams, S, Walker, B D. Cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes reactive with human immunodeficiency virus-1 produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and variable amounts of interleukins 2, 3, and 4 following stimulation with the cognate epitope.. Clin Immunol Immunopathol, 74(1), 100-6, 1995

Kalams, S A, Walker, B D. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and HIV-1 related neurologic disorders.. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 202, 79-88, 1995

Hammond, S A, Johnson, R P, Kalams, S A, Walker, B D, Takiguchi, M, Safrit, J T, Koup, R A, Siliciano, R F. An epitope-selective, transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP)-1/2-independent pathway and a more general TAP-1/2-dependent antigen-processing pathway allow recognition of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein by CD8+ CTL.. J Immunol, 154(11), 6140-56, 1995

Wilson, C C, Wong, J T, Girard, D D, Merrill, D P, Dynan, M, An, D D, Kalams, S A, Johnson, R P, Hirsch, M S, D'Aquila, R T. Ex vivo expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected persons in the presence of combination antiretroviral agents.. J Infect Dis, 172(1), 88-96, 1995

Kalams, S A, Walker, B D. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response in HIV-1 infection.. Clin Lab Med, 14(2), 271-99, 1994

Kalams, S A, Johnson, R P, Trocha, A K, Dynan, M J, Ngo, H S, D'Aquila, R T, Kurnick, J T, Walker, B D. Longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) gene usage by human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones reveals a limited TCR repertoire.. J Exp Med, 179(4), 1261-71, 1994